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Sep 21, Organize the literature review into sections that present themes or Am I looking at issues of theory? methodology? policy? quantitative research (e.g. on Is its significance (scope, severity, relevance) clearly established?.

Deskilling and degradation of labour in contemporary capitalism: is our thesis that post-braverman authors have welcomed his errors and rejected his truths, and that, by doing this, they have fallen prey to two fallacies. Valorisation and 'Deskilling': A Critique of Braverman further, we believe that the empirical investigation contributed by braverman can be reconceptualised with marxist categories and that its main theses, the degradation of labor and the deskilling tendency are valid.


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  • Against Management: Harry Braverman's Marxism!

Harry Braverman on the Detailed Division of Labor braverman's achievement was to understand the objective nature of the organization of the labor process and the relation between production process and valorization process and to describe how the deskilling tendency was developing at his time. Bravermans deskilling thesis braverman's thesis has however been contested, notably by andrew freidman in his work "industry and labour" The Deskilling Controversy - Aug 18, deskilling of social work: turning the tide - patrick ayre,Leaning particularly on examples drawn from developments in recent years within the field.

We read about the platform of the Communists, laid out in great detail in order to persuade the working class to join the movement. Its very existence assumes that the development of revolutionary class consciousness is not inevitable; if it were, there would be no need for such a political manifesto. The gravedigger thesis was never a scientific prediction based on a fully elaborated theoretical analysis. In the three volumes of Capital , comprising over 2, pages of text, Marx discussed it only in a three page section of volume 1, summarising the sketch advanced over six pages in the Manifesto.

By contrast to the six pages Marx spent on the gravedigger thesis in the Manifesto , in Capital literally hundreds of pages are spent on each of the following topics: the commodity form and value, money, the labour process and the production of surplus value, the division of labour, mechanisation, wages, capitalist accumulation, the circuits of capital, the turnover of capital, accumulation and reproduction, the production of profit, the equalisation of profit rates, the tendency of the rate of profit to fall, the forms of capital, rent and revenue.

I have argued that Marx did not consistently argue or systematically theorise that capitalism would automatically produce a working class with revolutionary class consciousness.

The early socialists, Draper explained, took pity on the working class, seeing it as suffering, incapable of self-organisation and in need of philanthropic help. While the young Marx also saw the proletariat as victim, he came to reject this argument, proposing instead that the people were capable of helping themselves.

While the bourgeois revolution concentrated power in the hands of a minority class, the proletarian revolution would transfer power to a class representing the majority. Further, all previous revolutions have substituted one form of private property for another. By contrast, if the working class could seize power, Marx and Engels thought, it would abolish class society as such. Second, Marx proposed that capitalism is based in an objectively determined class structure consisting of a small capitalist class and a large working class encompassing the vast majority of the population.

Rather than seeing a universal process of deskilling resulting in a homogeneous, unskilled working class, Marx argued that capitalism would require a complex division of labour including unskilled workers, skilled workers and a hierarchy of managers to coordinate it all. The category of expert managers includes members of the top 1 percent such as investment bankers, corporate lawyers, hedge fund and private equity managers and corporate executives. As such, the salariat of experts and managers should be distinguished from the working class.

The remaining class fragments consist of workers on hourly wages: non-skilled workers, skilled workers with no authority, non-skilled supervisors and skilled supervisors. As such, I define these four locations as the working class. Based on the foregoing definition, the working class as a percentage of the total labour force including capitalists, small employers and the self-employed is 76 percent in Sweden, 71 percent in the UK, 67 percent in the US, and 66 percent in Canada and Norway.

Japan is an outlier, having fully 23 percent of its population in self-employment, with 1. In terms of stock ownership, the top 10 percent of American households own a staggering 84 percent of all stocks, including pension plans, k retirement savings plans and mutual funds. This 23 percent is consistent with the Wright data indicating that roughly 25 to 35 percent of workers are in the salariat. Just 52 percent of American households own some form of pension. Again this is consistent with the definition of the working class consisting of 65 to 75 percent of the total labour force, according to the Wright data.

The majority of the population are wage workers with no ownership stake in the capitalist economy in any form. However, it remains internally differentiated and this is the central issue for class analysis and class politics. While the organic labour market relation between supervisors, skilled workers and unskilled workers is likely to generate a close subjective class affinity, there is likely to be a substantial subjective class distance between this group and the salariat.

The question of cross-class alliances is key here, and Draper shows that in their letters to each other and various additional parties, Marx and Engels were deeply concerned with these questions of differentiation and alliance. Finally, a central developmental dynamic of capitalism that Marx elaborated in detail in Capital is the concentration and centralisation of capital.

Specifically, he argued that there would be an increasing concentration of capital into the hands of a small number of capitalists and firms, and a centralisation of capital in the form of ever bigger enterprises. Both predictions ring true today. On concentration of wealth, in the top 1 percent of the US population held 40 percent of total net wealth, while the bottom 80 percent held just 10 percent.

The next 20 percent by wealth consists of the remaining capitalists and the top two thirds of the salariat. The bottom 80 percent by wealth consists of the bottom third of the salariat and the entire working class wage workers and supervisors. The fact that the bottom 80 percent has such a meagre proportion of total wealth reflects wage stagnation.

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Deskilling, identity labor, logic of capital | Marginal Utility Annex

In the US, from to , wages for high school educated males aged 25 to 44 and college educated males aged 25 to 34 declined in real terms. In the US the 25 largest employers each employ over , workers, with each of the top nine employing more than , workers. While there has been substantial growth in and differentiation of high-skilled occupations, 35 percent of the US labour force is in a low-autonomy job, such as a machine operator, clerk, nursing aid or cook, with another 27 percent in semi-autonomous jobs such as sales person, sales supervisor, secretary or primary school teacher.

Just 38 percent of workers are in high-skilled, autonomous jobs. Over a century after Capital , volume 1, was published, its analysis of class structure and the organisation of capital remains valid: ownership and wealth are obscenely concentrated; the economy is dominated by mega-corporations, and the vast majority of the population are wage workers, most of whom have zero ownership stake in corporate stocks and limited skills and autonomy at work. The point is that machinery may have often downgraded handicraft workers to machinists repeating all day long a few manual tasks, but has at the same time created a demand for highly skilled engineers planning the production process, constructing new machinery, maintaining the machinery etc.

Looking back on more than one-hundred years of mechanisation and automatization steadily more sectors became mechanized and therefore artisans are nowadays required more for cultural-artistic than for technical reasons. In addition, also the complexity of production organization, and controlling increased continuously.

In the last two decades there has been a growing empirical interest in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century technical change bias. Among economic historians, it is common to speak of two industrialization phases between and the first occurred from ca. In the new growth theory literature there is a widespread presumption that the first industrialization was predominantly deskilling or skill-reducing, whereas the second one was skill-biased or skill-enhancing for more details, see Brugger Following Smith, in our understanding, professional skills are acquired from formal education like schooling, formal apprenticeships, or professional trainings as well as from learning-by-doing, work experience, and informal apprenticeships.

Because skills and skill intensity can be measured only indirectly Atack et al.

Unfortunately, however, empirical results differ widely depending on which approximation or indirect indicator is used. Accordingly, the question of how to measure the skill bias of technical change is a serious and still unresolved and perhaps unresolvable problem in empirical studies.

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What would constitute a good measure? However, no such measure seems to exist. Moreover, by posing the above question, one is lead immediately to ask various sub-questions: Should we be interested in the aggregate demand for skill which is to some extent a result of compositional shifts in employment? Or is it of more interest to follow only the transformation of skill requirements in particular industries as the technologies change such as, for instance, the textile industry?

What is the Labor Theory of Value?

Or should we look at multiple levels of aggregation in which case the further question emerges of how to combine findings from different levels of aggregation in a meaningful way? We cannot pretend to have answers to these questions. However, in our view, it is clear that the introduction of a new technology in a particular industry must inevitably affect also the skill requirements of workers in some other industries, because the economic system consists of a set of interrelated industries mutually supplying each other with inputs. Measuring skill changes in aggregative terms therefore seems preferable and more informative than focusing on industry case studies alone.

Literacy rates are very frequently employed as an approximation for the bias of technological change. Country comparisons also show that more industrialized countries like England and the United States tended to have higher literacy rates in the mid-nineteenth century than less industrialized and more agrarian ones, like Austria or Spain Vincent On the other hand, however, the data on literacy rates also support the hypothesis of a deskilling bias of the first industrialization phase because, in contrast to the strong increase in literacy rates in the long run, the overall rates show no clear trend for the period between and , at least for English males.

Was Marx wrong about the working class? Reconsidering the gravedigger thesis

It must be noted, though, that literacy rates are a questionable indicator for the bias of technical change, because they undeniably depend on many social factors that are not directly related to the bias of technical change, such as political institutions, moral and cultural ideas, religion, or public funding for education.

Furthermore, literacy increased in tandem for both skilled and unskilled workers Nicholas and Nicholas —although the literacy rate of the former group has of course been consistently higher than that of the latter. Finally, literacy rates were on the rise long before the industrial revolution took off Mokyr and Voth , p. Throughout most of the mercantilist period, skills and technology were largely embodied in human beings, not in machines. Therefore, in , and Parliament developed restrictive laws centered on skilled craftsmen [i.

Moving on in time to the period of early Classical economic thought and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, machines began being produced as commodities and the technology embodied in them became an additional focus of legislation. As a result of this new focus, in and the Tudor laws were expanded to include severe restrictions on the export of machines. Elmslie , pp.