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Sep 21, Organize the literature review into sections that present themes or Am I looking at issues of theory? methodology? policy? quantitative research (e.g. on Is its significance (scope, severity, relevance) clearly established?.

Department of Biology. Bates College; Lunsford, Andrea A. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, ; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Purdue University; Using Evidence. Indiana University. The following USC Libraries research guide can help you properly cite sources in your research paper:. The following USC Libraries research guide offers basic information on using images and media in research:.

MLA: Using Sources Correctly

Listed below are particularly well-done and comprehensive websites that provide specific examples of how to cite sources under different style guidelines. This is a useful guide concerning how to properly cite images in your research paper.

This guide provides good information on the act of citation analysis, whereby you count the number of times a published work is cited by other works in order to measure the impact of a publication or author. The links below lead to systems where you can type in your information and have a citation compiled for you.

Note that these are not foolproof systems so it is important that you verify that the citation is correct and check your spelling, capitalization, etc. However, they can be useful in creating basic types of citations, particularly for online sources. When available, you should utilize these features because they not only generate a citation to the source [e.

Contact us. Citing Sources Search this Guide Search. Citing Sources This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. Importance of a Citing your Sources Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation.

Properly citing the works of others is important because: Proper citation allows readers to locate the materials you used. Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. In most social sciences disciplines, one of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to follow footnotes or references from known sources ["citation tracking"]. Citing other people's words and ideas indicates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are reporting your research from an informed and critically engaged perspective.

This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Other researcher's ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments. In many cases, another researcher's arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize the significance of your study and to provide supporting evidence about how you addressed the "So What? The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches. If you disagree with a researcher's ideas or you believe there is a gap in understanding the research problem, your citations can serve as sources from which to argue an alternative viewpoint or the need to pursue a different course of action.

In-Text Citations Made Easy (APA)

Use EasyBib. Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper. Using Biometrics to Evaluate Visual Design. Northern California Valley State University. Additionally, perceived web quality, which encompasses visual design, has a positive relationship with both initial and continued consumer purchase intention.

However, visual design is often assessed using self-report scale, which are vulnerable to a few pitfalls. Because self-report questionnaires are often reliant on introspection and honesty, it is difficult to confidently rely on self-report questionnaires to make important decisions. This study aims to ensure the validity of a visual design assessment instrument Visual Aesthetics of Websites Inventory: Short version by examining its relationship with biometric variables , like galvanic skin response, pupillometry, and fixation information.

Overall, we found that both average fixation duration and pupil dilation differed when participants viewed web pages with lower visual design ratings compared to web pages with a higher visual design rating. Keywords : usability, visual design, websites, eye tracking, pupillometry, self-report, VisAWI. In the literature, visual design is one aspect of website quality.

They further examined the impact web quality and retail brand trust has on purchase intentions.

Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography in MLA Style

Although this research spans various domains, the reliance on self-report measures to gauge concepts like visual design and web quality is prevalent throughout much of the literature. Although some self-report scales are validated within the literature , there are still issues with the use of self-report questionnaires. One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. This tends to be more of an issue in studies related to questionnaires that measure characteristics.

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More relevant to this study is the issue of introspection and memory. Surveys are often distributed after a task is completed, and its accuracy is dependent on the ability of the participant to remember their experience during the study. Multiple research studies have shown that human memory is far from static. This can be dangerous if a researcher chooses to solely rely on self-report methods to test a hypothesis. We believe these self-report methods in tandem with biometric methods can help ensure the validity of the questionnaires, and provide information beyond the scope of self-report scales.

We know from previous research that the quality of websites mediates many aspects of e-commerce, and provides insight as to how consumers view the webpages in general.

Citing Internet Sources

Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits. Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality.

If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:. Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures? Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal? Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands.

There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions. A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement. During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions limited by errors in initial study configuration , pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit.

This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables. Jones, C. Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 6 , — Kuan, H. Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites.


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Lin, H. The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Stojmenovic, M. Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Diversity The layout is pleasantly varied.

Citations Guide for Public Health Students

Difference p Joy Kitchen 3. Final Checklist Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Most cover letters ask you to include:. Can we offer one last suggestion? We promise it will only take a minute.

Consider running your paper through our handy dandy paper checker.


  • How to cite sources in academic writing.
  • A Guide to Computer Science Research.
  • The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles;
  • Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper.

Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Social sciences can include: Sociology Anthropology Economics Political Science Human Geography Archaeology Linguistics Many other fields and subject areas regularly use this style too.

Information related to writing and organizing your paper: Paper and essay categories General paper length Margin sizes Title pages Running Heads — How to format running heads, with samples Preparing APA format outlines How to form an abstract The body of most scientific papers Proper usage of APA format headings and subheadings Use of graphics tables and figures B.

Complete sample paper E.